Деловой английский.Торговля на английском язык

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Выпуск 27

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Выходит с 18.11.2004

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 Английские предлоги (иллюстрированный электронный сборник)



Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both. Trade is also called commerce. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade.

Trade exists for many reasons. Due to specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of production, trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have a comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. As such, trade at market prices between locations benefits both locations.

Trading can also refer to the action performed by traders and other market agents in the financial markets.


Organisation of trade

Patterns of organizing and administering trade include:

  • State control - trade centrally controlled by government planning.

    • Laws regulating Trade and establishing a framework such as trade law, tariffs, support for intellectual property, opposition to dumping.

  • Guild control - trade controlled by private business associations holding either de facto or government-granted power to exclude new entrants.

    • In contemporary times, the language has evolved to business and professional organizations, often controlled by academia. For example in many states, a person may not practice the professions of engineering, law, law enforcement, medicine, and teaching unless they have a college degree and, in some cases, a license.

  • Free enterprise - trade without significant central controls; market participants engage in trade based on their own individual assessments of risk and reward, and may enter or exit a given market relatively unimpeded.

  • Infrastructure in support of trade, such as banking, stock market,

  • Technology in support of trade such as electronic commerce, vending machines.       (Wikipedia)



goods - товары

services - услуги

commerce - коммерция

barter - бартер

bilateral - двусторонний

multilateral - многосторонний

comparative advantage - сравнительное преимущество

commodity - предмет потребления

intellectual property - интеллектуальная собственность

dumping - демпинг

guild - гильдия, союз

free enterprise - свободное предпринимательство

unimpeded - беспрепятственный

vending machines - торговые автоматы


dumping - демпинг


 Составьте полное определение демпинга, вставив слова из списка в свободные места. Ответ дан в конце выпуска.

Exporting  _______ at _______ lower than the _______ prices. In price-to-price dumping, the _______ uses higher home-prices to _______ the reduced _______  from lower _______ prices. In price-cost dumping, the exporter is subsidized by the local _______.






Все полезные фразы, которые используются при подготовке презентаций, можно найти в книге "Как правильно составить деловой документ на английском языке" (магазин "Москва" http://www.moscowbooks.ru/book.asp?id=404173, Интернет магазин "Озон"  http://www.ozon.ru/context/detail/id/3830571/?partner=bookpartners17)

Мои книги

Базовый английский язык

Электронная книга

"Базовый английский язык"

Горячая 1000 - 1000 самых распространенных английских слов

Электронная книга - учебный курс

"Горячая 1000"

Как правильно составить деловой документ на английском языке Как правильно составить деловой документ на английском языке
1000 самых распространенных английских слов 1000 самых распространенных английских слов
Английский язык в таблицах Английский язык в таблицах



How to Make a Great First Impression

First impressions can be quite important.

Everyone stereotypes everyone on first impression, even if we are reluctant to do it.

We all get a first impression of a new person that creates a mental image of his or her personality in our minds.

That image of you often lasts and can affect the relationship that follows.

Another thing is that we often play different roles in relationships. With our parents we play one role, with friends another, with someone we are interested in/in love with a third, when shopping for clothes in a store a fourth. And so on.

A good or great first impression can create a positive role in the minds of the new people we meet. When we meet them again, we are often drawn back into this role. Sometimes it happens almost unconsciously until you after a few minutes notice that you have fallen into your old role - like when you meet friends you haven´t seen in years - in that dynamic once again. You may not always be drawn into that role. But if you do it sure is better to have a positive than a negative role saved for you.

Here are some of the things I’ve learned about improving first impressions. Of course, different environments like business meetings with suits and ties or parties with umbrella-drinks come with different goals and expectations so figure out what´s appropriate and useful in each meeting.

Act as if you are meeting a good friend
If you just imagine that the person you have just met and are talking to is one of your best friends you’ll probably adjust unconsciously and start to smile, open up your body-language to a very friendly and warm position and reduce any nervousness or weirdness in your tone of voice and body-language. Don´t overdo it though, you might not want to hug and kiss right away.

The nice thing about this is that you may also start to feel positive feelings towards this new person, just as you do with your friend when you meet him/her. This is a pretty good starting-point for getting them to reciprocate and for developing a good relationship.

Keep you body language open
Smile. Don’t cross your arms or legs. Turn your body towards the people you’re are shaking hands with or talking to so that your body language is friendly and open. Make relaxed eye contact – don´t stare – when talking or listening. Don´t look the person in the eye all the time. When you break eye-contact try to do it kinda slow, don´t let your eyes just dart away. Making eye-contact can be a bit hard or scary but if you work at it you´ll get used to it.

Stand up straight
Keeping a good posture certainly improves on the impression one makes. Don´t slouch. Sit or stand up straight.

(продолжение в следующем выпуске)


Exporting goods at prices lower than the home-market prices. In price-to-price dumping, the exporter uses higher home-prices to supplement the reduced revenue from lower export prices. In price-cost dumping, the exporter is subsidized by the local government.


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До встречи в следующем выпуске.

Нина Григорьевна



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