Деловой английский.Инновации, нанотехнологии на английском языке

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Выпуск 25

рассылка сайта www.english-2days.narod.ru и www.timeforenglish.boom.ru


Выходит с 18.11.2004

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В этом выпуске:

Technology -  Техника, технология

Как подготовить презентацию - полезные фразы (часть 2)

Практика: 1. Видео 2. Public Speaking:10 Simple Steps to Confident Speaking
13-й выпуск бесплатной рассылки "D'you speak English?-Yes, I do!"



Technology is a broad concept that deals with an animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts, and how it affects an animal species' ability to control and adapt to its environment.  It can refer to material objects of use to humanity, such as machines, hardware or utensils, but can also encompass broader themes, including systems, methods of organization, and technique. The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".

The human race's use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, claiming that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.



tool - орудие, инструмент

craft - ремесло

utensil - утварь, инструмент

technique - технический прием

prehistorical - доисторический

wheel - колесо

printing press - печатный станок

lessen - уменьшать

physical barriers - физические барьеры

weapons - оружие

club - дубинка

nuclear - ядерный

unwanted by-product - нежелательный побочный продукт

pollution - загрязнение

detriment - ущерб, вред

ethical - этический

efficiency - эффективность

human condition - условия жизни

pervasiveness - всепроникновение

proponent - сторонник

primates - приматы

dolphin - дельфин

generation - поколение


Начиная новый вопрос

Let's move on now to... - Теперь давайте перейдем к...

The next point I'd like to make is... - Следующий вопрос, которого я хотел бы коснуться, заключается в ...

Начиная заключительную часть

And finally ... - И в заключение ...

Lastly... - В конце ...

Подводя итоги

So now, I'd just like to summarize the main points. - Итак, теперь я бы хотел резюмировать основные моменты.

Let me sum up. - Позвольте мне подвести итог.





Посмотрите две презентации. Если видеофайлы не открываются, зайдите на страницу www.english-2days.narod.ru/bis25.html.

A Successful Presentation Technique

a case study explaining a successful presentation technique to an audience of the Society of Human Resource Management.

Tips for Public Speaking

Talking in front of people is extremely difficult, here are some suggestions for becoming a better public speaker. Find more great clips at http://www.WatchMojo.com!


Public Speaking: 10 Simple Steps to Confident Speaking


The most important step in public speaking is preparation. It is the No. 1 key to success in every endeavour and this applies especially to speaking in public. To make a successful speech requires in depth research of your topic. For every minute that your speech lasts you will probably have to spend one hour in research and preparation! If you think that 10 hours is a lot of time to devote to a 10 minute speech then consider Muhammad Ali-The Master of Preparation. Some of his fights only lasted 10 minutes but he spent several months in preparing himself. He knew that preparation creates confidence:

--- Confidence in your abilities

--- Confidence in your knowledge

--- Confidence in a successful outcome

--- Confidence to overcome fear

--- Confidence to take action


Training and Exercise is the next simple step in developing confident public speaking. If you want to become physically fit then you need to engage in training and exercise. It is the same with public speaking. Be prepared to feel foolish, awkward and nervous while you are learning and trying out new skills. Just do it anyway. The more you practice in public the more and quicker you will learn. So take every opportunity to speak in public. Remember, while you are learning you don’t have to be perfect, just use those occasions as learning opportunities. One way to get practice is to join a speaking club, as I did. That way you are working together with others who are also learning. You will receive lots of constructive feedback, which is what you need while you are learning.

3. Perseverance

This is simply a matter of being determined to master the art and skills of public speaking and deciding never to give up. No matter how badly you think your last speech went or how badly you feel about it, give it one more try, then another and another. Improvement is incremental, if you keep on trying.

TRI, TRI again. Take action. Review it.
Improve it. Then TRI again.

4. Plan a Simple Structure

Introduction: Tell them what you are going to tell them. Body: Tell them two or three clear ideas. Conclusion: Tell them what you have told them. Nothing could be simpler.

5. Pleasure

Speaking in public is a pleasurable, exhilarating experience. It provides an opportunity to share your experience and your knowledge. You may not feel that speaking in public is a pleasure at first. You may feel absolutely petrified. Many people do. This is only natural. But once you have had the opportunity to learn a few skills and have learnt how to control your nerves then you will experience the satisfaction of confidence in your abilities to speak in front of an audience.


6. Personality

You are invisible! Until you express your ideas and make them clear to others you are invisible. To make an impact on other people you must express your personality. Speaking in public is a wonderful way to do this. You have to make the invisible part of you visible. By sharing your real self, the hidden part of you, your feelings, your attitudes, your dreams and aspirations with your audience you connect with them in a very real and dynamic way. They see the real person and they are then able to enter into your world and empathise with you. By expressing yourself, your opinions, your ideas and your beliefs and expressing them in your own unique style you make your personality visible to others.

7. Projection

When tackling the art of public speaking one of the strategies you can use is to see yourself as successful. Use positive Self Talk to enthuse yourself with confidence. Walk up to the podium with your head held high and with a confident air. No one can see what you are feeling inside. Act confident even if you don’t feel it. You will soon feel confident as your feelings catch up with your actions.

8. Passion

To be at all convincing you must have a passion for your subject. It must be something you are vitally interested in. You must exude enthusiasm and you must communicate this excitement to your audience. So concentrate on this one thing until it becomes an all-consuming obsession. Then you will speak about it with conviction and your audience will be convinced of its importance to you and they will sit up and take notice.

9. Progress

After you have made a few speeches take time to reflect on how far you have come. See the progress you have made. Begin to appreciate that you are feeling more confidence and that you are communicating more effectively. This will provide even greater motivation and it will renew your determination to keep on trying.

10. Perfecting

By putting these simple steps into effect you will learn how to become a confident speaker and by continually thinking about them and practising them you will desire to perfect your skills. There are many resources available to enable you to improve your abilities. There are speaking clubs, professional speaking organisations, books, courses and articles available. You may wish to use some or all of these resources to perfect your skills as a public speaker.

Alan Moreton

Вышел очередной 13-й выпуск бесплатной рассылки "D'you speak English?-Yes, I do!"    How d'you celebrate..?

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Нина Григорьевна



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