Деловой английский. Национальная экономика Великобритании на английском языке

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Выпуск 15

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Выходит с 18.11.2004

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В этом выпуске:

National economies - United Kingdom



free market - cвободный рынок


low taxation - низкий уровень налогообложения

purchasing power parity - паритет покупательной силы

heavy industries - тяжелая промышленность

shipbuilding- судостроение

coal mining - добыча угля

steel production - производство стали

service sector - сфера обслуживания

insurance - страхование

manufacturing sector - производственный сектор

сivil and defence aircraft - гражданский и военный самолет

to issue currency- выпускать валюту

to retain the right - сохранять право


The British economy follows the Anglo-Saxon model, focusing on the principles of liberalisation, the free market, and low taxation and regulation. Based on market exchange rates, the United Kingdom is the fifth-largest economy in the world; the second largest in Europe after Germany, and the sixth-largest overall by purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates.

The British were the first in the world to enter the Industrial Revolution, and, like most industrialising countries at the time, initially concentrated on heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, and textiles. The empire created an overseas market for British products, allowing the United Kingdom to dominate international trade in the 19th century. However, as other nations industrialised and surplus labour from agriculture began to dry up, the United Kingdom started to lose its economic advantage. As a result, heavy industry declined throughout the 20th century. The British service sector, however, has grown substantially, and now makes up about 73% of GDP.

The service sector of the United Kingdom is dominated by financial services, especially in banking and insurance. London is one of the world's largest financial centres with the London Stock Exchange, the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange, and the Lloyd's of London insurance market all based in the city. It also has the largest concentration of foreign bank branches in the world. In the past decade, a rival financial centre in London has grown in the Docklands area, with HSBC, Citigroup, and Barclays Bank all relocating their head offices there. The Scottish capital, Edinburgh also has a large financial sector, the sixth largest in Europe. Tourism is very important to the British economy. With over 27 million tourists a year, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world.


The British manufacturing sector, however, has greatly diminished since World War II. It is still a significant part of the economy, but only accounted for one-sixth of national output in 2003. The British motor industry is a significant part of this sector, although all large-volume producers are now foreign-owned. Civil and defence aircraft production is led by the United Kingdom's largest aerospace firm, BAE Systems, and the pan-European consortium known as Airbus. Rolls-Royce holds a major share of the global aerospace engines market. The chemical and pharmaceutical industry is also strong in the UK, with the world's second and third largest pharmaceutical firms (GlaxoSmithKline and AstraZeneca, respectively) being based in the UK. The United Kingdom's agriculture sector is small by European standards, accounting for only 0.9% of GDP. The UK though has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves. Primary energy production accounts for about 10% of Gross domestic product (GDP), one of the highest shares of any industrial state.

The currency of the UK is pound sterling, represented by the symbol £. The Bank of England is the central bank and is responsible for issuing currency, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover the issue. The UK chose not to join the Euro on that currency's launch, although the government has pledged to hold a public referendum for deciding membership if "five economic tests" are met. Currently UK public opinion is against the notion. /From Wikipedia/



Answer the questions:

1. What are the peculiarities of the Anglo-Saxon model of economy?

2. Why did the UK lose its economic advantage and what were the reasons of the heavy industry decline in the 20th century?

3. How many tourists visit the UK every year? What is the UK's population?

4. What are the British major manufacturing industries?   

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Нина Григорьевна







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