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Leadership.Лидерство на www.english-2days.narod.ru


Выпуск 57 - Leadership (Лидерство)

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В этом выпуске:

1. Quote

2. Тема "Leadership"

3. Business English Vocabulary List

4. The 7 Habits of of Highly Effective People

5. Упражнения

6. Учебные пособия для изучающих английский язык


1. Quote

It is Genius that gets Power; and its prime lieutenants are Force and Wisdom. The unruliest of men bend before the leader that has sense to see and the will to do. - Albert Pike

Власть получает настоящий Лидер, его главные помощники - Сила и Мудрость. Самые непокорные склоняются перед лидером, который имеет чувство, чтобы видеть, и волю, чтобы делать. - Альберт Пайк 


2. Leadership


Leadership is defined as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid, management, and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. It is somebody whom people follow: somebody who guides or directs others. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Studies of leadership have produced theories involving:

  • traits,

  • situational interaction,

  • function,

  • behavior,

  • power,

  • vision and values,

  • charisma, and

  • intelligence, among others.


Most theories in the 20th century argued that great leaders were born, not made. Current studies have indicated that leadership is much more complex and cannot be boiled down to a few key traits of an individual. Years of observation and study have indicated that one such trait or a set of traits does not make an extraordinary leader. What scholars have been able to arrive at is that leadership traits of an individual do not change from situation to situation; such traits include intelligence, assertiveness, or physical attractiveness. However, each key trait may be applied to situations differently, depending on the circumstances.

  • Determination and drive include traits such as initiative, energy, assertiveness, perseverance, masculinity, and sometimes dominance. People with these traits often tend to wholeheartedly pursue their goals, work long hours, are ambitious, and often are very competitive with others.

  • Cognitive capacity includes intelligence, analytical and verbal ability, behavioral flexibility, and good judgment. Individuals with these traits are able to formulate solutions to difficult problems, work well under stress or deadlines, adapt to changing situations, and create well-thought-out plans for the future.

  • Self-confidence encompasses the traits of high self-esteem, assertiveness, emotional stability, and self-assurance. Individuals that are self-confident do not doubt themselves or their abilities and decisions; they also have the ability to project this self-confidence onto others, building their trust and commitment.

  • Integrity is demonstrated in individuals who are truthful, trustworthy, principled, consistent, dependable, loyal, and not deceptive. Leaders with integrity often share these values with their followers, as this trait is mainly an ethics issue. It is often said that these leaders keep their word and are honest and open with their cohorts.

  • Sociability describes individuals who are friendly, extroverted, tactful, flexible, and interpersonally competent. Such a trait enables leaders to be accepted well by the public, use diplomatic measures to solve issues, as well as hold the ability to adapt their social persona to the situation at hand. Few great leaders encompass all of the traits listed above, but many have the ability to apply a number of them to succeed as front-runners of their organization or situation.



A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. It is the result of the philosophy, personality, and experience of the leader. Different situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when there is little time to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has significantly more experience or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic leadership style may be most effective; however, in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise, a more democratic or free-rein style may be more effective. The style adopted should be the one that most effectively achieves the objectives of the group while balancing the interests of its individual members.

  • Engaging style - These initiatives do for the organization is engage both leaders and employees in understanding the existing conditions and how they can collectively assist in addressing them. Reaching out to employees during difficult times to better understand their concerns and interests by openly and honestly conveying the impact of the downturn on them and their organizations can provide a solid foundation for not only engaging them but retaining them when things do turn around.

  • Autocratic or authoritarian style - All decision-making powers are centralized in the leader. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group.

  • Democratic style - The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality.

  • Free-rein style - A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. The subordinates are motivated to be creative and innovative.

  • Narcissistic leadership - Narcissistic leadership is a leadership style in which the leader is only interested in him/herself. Their priority is themselves - at the expense of their people/group members. This leader exhibits the characteristics of a narcissist: arrogance, dominance and hostility. It is a common leadership style.

  • Toxic leadership - A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or an organization, and who abuses the leader–follower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when he/she joined it.

  • Task-oriented - Task-oriented leadership is a style in which the leader is focused on the tasks that need to be performed in order to meet a certain production goal. Task-oriented leaders are generally more concerned with producing a step-by-step solution for given problem or goal, strictly making sure these deadlines are met, results and reaching target outcomes.

  • Relationship-oriented leadership - Relationship-oriented leadership is a contrasting style in which the leader is more focused on the relationships amongst the group and is generally more concerned with the overall well-being and satisfaction of group members. Relationship-oriented leaders emphasize communication within the group, shows trust and confidence in group members, and shows appreciation for work done. Relationship-oriented leaders are focused on developing the team and the relationships in it.


3. Business English Vocabulary List

trait - черта характера

intelligence - ум, интеллект

assertiveness - настойчивость, напористость

determination - решительность

perseverance - стойкость, упорство

masculinity - мужественность

cognitive capacity - познавательная способность

self-confidence - самоуверенность

self-esteem - самоуважение

integrity - честность, прямота




sociability - общительность

engaging style - участвующий стиль

autocratic style - властный стиль

free-rein style - свободный стиль

fend for oneself - заботиться о себе

narcissistic style - самовлюблённый стиль

arrogance - высокомерие

toxic style - злоупотребляющий стиль

task-oriented style - стиль достижения цели

relationship-oriented style - стиль создания команды





4. The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

According to Stephen Covey's The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, habits are a combination of knowledge, skill, and motivation.

  1. Habit 1 is to be proactive; proactive leaders realize that they can choose how they respond to events.

  2. Habit 2 is to begin with the end in mind; effective leaders always keep their ultimate goals in mind.

  3. Habit 3 is to put first things first; leader's time should be organized around priorities.

  4. Habit 4 is to think win/win; those with win/win perspectives take a mutual gains approach to communication, believing that the best solution benefits both parties.

  5. Habit 5 is to seek first to understand, and then to be understood; effective leaders put aside their personal concerns to engage in empathetic listening.

  6. Habit 6 is synergize; synergy creates a solution that is greater than the sum of its parts.

  7. Habit 7 is to sharpen the saw; continual renewal of the physical, social/emotional, spiritual, and mental dimensions of the self.

5. Exercises

Ex.1. List the best leader's traits using the text above and the table "122 adjectives of character".

Ex.2. Name the styles when (the key is underneath)

- a leader lets the group fend oneself

- a leader concentrates the group's efforts on the tasks

- a leader and his employees are jointly involved into the situation

- a leader abuses his responsibilities thus worsening the situation in the company

- a leader shows arrogance, dominance and hostility

- a leader cares of communication within the group

- a leader is the sole person to make decisions

- a leader shares the decision-making abilities with the group


6. Учебные пособия для изучающих английский язык

1000 английских слов 

Как составить деловой документ по-английски

Документы на английском языке (шаблоны)

Англо-русский разговорник

Основы английского языка

Английские предлоги

352 English Irregular Verbs


Ex.2. Key Name the styles when

- a leader lets the group fend oneself (free-rein style)

- a leader concentrates the group's efforts on the tasks (task-oriented style)

- a leader and his employees are jointly involved into the situation (engaging style)

- a leader abuses his responsibilities thus worsening the situation in the company (toxic style)

- a leader shows arrogance, dominance and hostility (narcissistic style)

- a leader cares of communication within the group (relationship-oriented style)

- a leader is the sole person to make decisions (autocratic style)

- a leader shares the decision-making abilities with the group (democratic style)

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