Факторинг-Factoring на английском языке.Термин словарь, упражнения

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Выпуск 52 - Factoring

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В этом выпуске:

Topic: Factoring (text, vocabulary, exercises)

Summer Reading:

- Little Black Book for Stunning Success

- Secret Letters of the Monk Who Sold His Ferrari



Factoring is a financial transaction whereby a business sells its accounts receivable (i.e., invoices) to a third party (called a factor) at a discount. In "advance" factoring, the factor provides financing to the seller of the accounts in the form of a cash "advance," often 70-85% of the purchase price of the accounts, with the balance of the purchase price being paid, net of the factor's discount fee (commission) and other charges, upon collection. In "maturity" factoring, the factor makes no advance on the purchased accounts; rather, the purchase price is paid on or about the average maturity date of the accounts being purchased in the batch. Factoring differs from a bank loan in several ways.

1. The emphasis is on the value of the receivables, whereas a bank focuses more on the value of the borrower's total assets, and often also considers, in underwriting the loan, the value attributable to non-accounts collateral owned by the borrower. Such collateral includes inventory, equipment, and real property. That is, a bank loan issuer looks beyond the credit-worthiness of the firm's accounts receivables and of the account debtors thereon.

2. Secondly, factoring is not a loan – it is the purchase of a financial asset (the receivable).

3. Third, a nonrecourse factor assumes the "credit risk", that a purchased account will not collect due solely to the financial inability of account debtor to pay.

It is different from forfaiting in the sense that forfaiting is a transaction-based operation involving exporters in which the firm sells one of its transactions, while factoring is a Financial Transaction that involves the Sale of any portion of the firm's Receivables.

The three parties directly involved are:

- the one who sells the receivable,

- the debtor (the account debtor, or customer of the seller), and

- the factor.


The receivable is essentially a financial asset associated with the debtor's liability to pay money owed to the seller (usually for work performed or goods sold). The seller then sells one or more of its invoices (the receivables) at a discount to the third party, the specialized financial organization (the factor), often, in advance factoring, to obtain cash. The sale of the receivables essentially transfers ownership of the receivables to the factor, indicating the factor obtains all of the rights associated with the receivables. Accordingly, the factor obtains the right to receive the payments made by the debtor for the invoice amount and, in nonrecourse factoring, must bear the loss if the account debtor does not pay the invoice amount due solely to his or its financial inability to pay. Usually, the account debtor is notified of the sale of the receivable, and the factor bills the debtor and makes all collections; however, non-notification factoring, where the client (seller) collects the accounts sold to the factor, as agent of the factor, also occurs.

There are three principal parts to "advance" factoring transaction:

(a) the advance, a percentage of the invoice face value that is paid to the seller at the time of sale,

(b) the reserve, the remainder of the purchase price held until the payment by the account debtor is made and

(c) the discount fee, the cost associated with the transaction which is deducted from the reserve, along with other expenses, upon collection, before the reserve is disbursed to the factor's client.

Sometimes the factor charges the seller (the factor's "client") both a discount fee, for the factor's assumption of credit risk and other services provided, as well as interest on the factor's advance, based on how long the advance, often treated as a loan (repaid by set-off against the factor's purchase obligation, when the account is collected), is outstanding. The factor also estimates the amount that may not be collected due to non-payment, and makes accommodation for this in pricing, when determining the purchase price to be paid to the seller. The factor's overall profit is the difference between the price it paid for the invoice and the money received from the debtor, less the amount lost due to non-payment.

Источник: wikipedia.org/wiki/Factoring_(finance)


Термин словарь

factoring - факторинг, покупка торговых задолженностей производителя с принятием на себя обязанностей по их взысканию и риска неплатежа

factorage - вознаграждение

financial transaction - финансовая операция

accounts receivable дебиторы по расчётам

factor - агент, фактор, комиссионер

at a discount - со скидкой, ниже номинала

in the batch - в комплекте

receivables дебиторская задолженность, счета дебиторов

underwrite the loan гарантировать займ

collateral - обеспечение, залог, дополнительное обеспечение

forfaiting - штрафование, конфискация


Ex.1. Find the English equivalents to the Russian phrases (italics in the text):

- стоимость активов заёмщика

- стоимость покупки счетов

- обязательство дебитора уплатить деньги

- принятие на себя кредитных рисков

- право собственности на счета дебиторов

- после взимания

Ex.2. Answer the questions:

- What is the definition of 'factoring'?

- In which way does it differ from a loan?

- How many parties are directly involved into the factoring transaction?

- Which party obtains the full right for the receivables?

- How is the factor's overall profit calculated?  

Summer Reading

Рекомендую прочитать книги Робина Шармы, всемирно известного бизнес-тренера (отрывки приведены ниже). См. другую его статью - 50 New Rules for Work.


Little Black Book for Stunning Success

"Language offers a framework for meaning. Think about that powerful idea for a second. We understand the world through words. The words you use determine the way you perceive reality...".

Читать дальше -



Secret Letters of the Monk Who Sold His Ferrari

"My wordless guide was moving quickly ahead of me, as if he too disliked being down here. The tunnel was damp, and dimly lit. The bones of six million Parisians were entombed in this place...

Suddenly the young man stopped at the entrance way of a new tunnel. It was separated from the one we had followed by a piece of rusted iron fencing..."

Читать дальше -





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