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День Гая Фокса в Англии - Guy Fawkes Day

День Св.Валентина - День Сурка - Троица - День Колумба - День Благодарения - День Ветеранов - День Гая Фокса - Хеллоуин



5 ноября в Великобритании и других странах Британского Содружества отмечают День Гая Фокса или, как его иначе называют, День костров. Памятная дата основывается на событии, произошедшем 400 лет назад - заговоре группы английских католиков против Короля Шотландии Джеймса VI, протестанта по вероисповедованию, который занял престол Англии после 45-летнего правления Елизаветы I и стал Королем Англии Джеймсом I. Заговор провалился, его участники были казнены, но имя одного из них - Гая Фокса - помнят, а его изображение сжигают на костре до сих пор.

Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Bonfire Night, is an annual celebration, primarily in Great Britain, traditionally and usually held on the evening of 5 November. Festivities are centred on the use of fireworks and the lighting of bonfires.

The use of the term "Guy Fawkes Night" originates from the Gunpowder Plot of 1605, a failed conspiracy by a group of provincial English Catholics to assassinate the Protestant King James I of England and replace him with a Catholic head of state. The date was first celebrated on 5 November 1605, after Guy Fawkes, left in charge of the gunpowder placed underneath the House of Lords, was discovered and arrested. The same month the surviving conspirators were executed, in January 1606 the Thanksgiving Act was passed, ensuring that for more than 250 years 5 November was kept free as a day of thanksgiving. 

fireworks - фейерверк

bonfire - костёр

gunpowder - порох

plot - заговор, переворот

conspiracy - заговор

assassinate - убивать, совершать террористический акт

execute - казнить


In England the Catholic hierarchy was restored in 1850, but almost 250 years after the first bonfires were lit anti-Catholic sentiment remained strong. Effigies were burnt of the new Catholic Archbishop of Westminster, Nicholas Wiseman, and the Pope. The publication in 1857 of author David Jardine's A Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot only stoked the flames higher, and it was not until 1859 that the thanksgiving prayer of 5 November contained in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer was removed. The same year, the Thanksgiving Act itself was repealed, and the day was no longer celebrated as a public holiday.

Guy Fawkes Night remains a popular time to burn effigies of current hate figures. One such instance was the burning on 5 November 1899 of an effigy of Paul Kruger, President of the South African Republic, at Ticehurst. At Lewes, a town with a history steeped in anti-Catholic sentiment, in 1994 revellers immolated the effigies of politicians such as Margaret Thatcher and John Major, alongside Fawkes.

effigy - изображение

repeal - отменять

immolate - приносить в жертву




Across England, Wales, and Scotland, both private and civic events take place in towns and villages. These modern events generally have no religious connotations. Although 5 November is the traditional night for celebrations, in recent years the trend is for the festivities to be moved to a weekend, often with officially organised bonfires and professionally managed firework displays.

Traditionally, an effigy (or "guy") representing Fawkes is ritually burnt on the bonfire. Although the night is celebrated in Fawkes's home town of York, some there do not burn his effigy, most notably those from his old school. In the weeks before bonfire night, children traditionally displayed the "guy" and requested a "penny for the guy" in order to raise funds with which to buy fireworks. This practice has diminished greatly, perhaps because it has been seen as begging, and also because children are not allowed to buy fireworks. In addition there are concerns that children might misuse the money.

connotation - подсмысл

festivities - торжества, празднества







In the United Kingdom, there are several foods that are traditionally consumed on Bonfire Night:

  • Bangers and mash (or hot dogs in more recent times)

  • Black treacle goods such as bonfire toffee and parkin

  • Toffee apples

  • Baked potatoes – more commonly referred to as "jacket potatoes" – which are wrapped in aluminium foil and cooked in the bonfire or its embers

  • Black peas with vinegar

  • Potato pie with pickled red cabbage


toffee - патока с маслом

parkin - овсяный пирог с патокой

aluminium foil - фольга

embers - горячая зола

pickled red cabbage - маринованная красная капуста


Remember, remember the Fifth of November,

The Gunpowder Treason and Plot,

I know of no reason

Why the Gunpowder Treason

Should ever be forgot.

Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes, t'was his intent

To blow up the King and Parli'ment.

Three-score barrels of powder below

To prove old England's overthrow;

By God's providence he was catch'd (or by God's mercy*)

With a dark lantern and burning match.

Holla boys, Holla boys, let the bells ring.

Holloa boys, holloa boys, God save the King!

And what should we do with him? Burn him!

treason - измена

overthrow - свержение

dark lantern - потайной фонарь










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