What is procurement?
Procurement is the
of appropriate goods and/or services at the best possible total cost of ownership to meet the needs of the purchaser in terms of quality and quantity,
time, and location. Corporations and public bodies often define processes
intended to promote fair and open competition for their business while
minimizing exposure to
Almost all purchasing decisions include factors such as
marginal benefit, and
price fluctuations. Procurement generally involves making buying decisions
under conditions of scarcity. If good data is available, it is good practice to make use of
economic analysis methods such as cost-benefit analysis or cost-utility analysis.
An important distinction is made between analysis without risk and those with
risk. Where risk is involved, either in the costs or the benefits, the concept
of expected value may be employed.
Based on the consumption purposes of the acquired goods and services,
procurement activities are often split into two distinct categories. The first
category being direct, production-related procurement and the second being
indirect, non-production-related procurement.
Direct procurement occurs in manufacturing settings only. It encompasses all
items that are part of finished products, such as raw material, components and
parts. Direct procurement, which is the focus in supply chain management, directly affects the production process of manufacturing firms. In
contrast, indirect procurement activities concern “operating resources” that a
company purchases to enable its operations. It comprises a wide variety of goods
and services, from standardised low value items like office supplies and
to complex and costly products and services like heavy equipment and consulting services.
закупки, снабжение, поставка
сговор, тайное соглашение
- поставка, доставка
обработка, перемещение, погрузочные работы
колебания цен или курсов ценных бумаг
- недостаток, дефицит
анализ затрат и результатов
- анализ затрат и выгоды
- ожидаемая ценность
supply chain management
управление сетью поставок
- смазочные материалы
Procurement vs acquisition
The US Defense Acquisition University (DAU) defines procurement as the act of
buying goods and services for the government.
DAU defines acquisition as the conceptualization, initiation, design,
development, test, contracting, production,
deployment, Logistics Support (LS), modification, and
of weapons and other systems, supplies, or services (including construction) to
satisfy Department of Defense needs, intended for use in or in support of
Acquisition is therefore a much wider concept than procurement, covering the
whole life cycle of acquired systems.